– Ferns:

  In The Midst Of A Living Fossil Relic


These living fossil ferns like the Angiopteris evecta appeared around about 433 million years ago in the early Silurian Period.
The atmosphere was oxygen enriched about 10 percent with a thick ozone layer to prevent any ultraviolet rays, emitting on the earth land surface by the sun.
The oxygen levels increase around the period of time, continuing to rise over the next 100 million years.
The earth land surface was habitable for earliest plants, but it was harmful for any sustainable life like animal or humans.

The earth land surfaces with an enriched oxygen atmosphere had produced peat bog ponds, which enable sustain early plant life to evolve.
They evolve in a way they gradually adapted a revolutionary system is where the nutrients and minerals can be transported throughout the plant, known as a vascular system.

The vascular system, where the cellular walls become thicker as the cellulose is transported through an internal tubular system to support other parts of the plant like the developing rhizomes roots, even right up to the tip of the leaves.

These earliest plants evolve that they can self-reproduced by sporing.
Most of these living fossils ferns lived mainly around mountainous regions and humid areas like the tropics, it’s mostly a warm climates, where these living fossil are found in around the Southern Hemisphere.